Over the past few years, Egypt’s National Integrity System (NIS), which is made up of the key institutions that contribute to integrity, transparency and account- ability in society, has undergone a number of positive developments. Nevertheless, corruption is perceived to be on the increase, and the existing mechanisms, laws and regulations are seen as largely inadequate to deal with the corruption challenge in Egypt.
The National Integrity System encompasses the key institutions, sectors or specific activities (the ‘pillars’) that contribute to integrity, transparency and account- ability in a society. When it functions properly, the NIS combats corruption as part of the larger struggle against abuse of power, malfeasance and misappropriation in all its forms. Strengthening the NIS is about promoting better governance across all aspects of society.
The NIS studies offer a qualitative assessment of the integrity system in a country or region. They are based on both objective and subjective sources of data, which differ in quantity in each country or region evaluated. The studies therefore require both desk research and field research.
At least one focus group is convened as part of the country study. Focus group participants include anti-corruption and governance experts drawn from government (including donors, where relevant), the private sector, the professions (e.g. lawyers, accountants and engineers), media and civil society.